MENAKAR SEJARAH TAFSIR MAQĀṢIDĪ

Zaenal Hamam, A. Halil Thahir

Abstract


This article elaborate the historical root of tafsir maqasidi through these steps:1) describing the four periods of the history of tafsir; 2) deducing points, from each period, which could provide an idea on the history of tafsir maqashidi, either theoretically or practically; 3) and providing examples of tafsir maqashidi. This article is done by documentation, by searching, reading, and reviewing qualitative data to be collected and analyzed by deductive method. The results of the article show: 1) historical roots of tafsir maqa>s{idi> have an intertwined with the history of tafsir in general, namely: marḥalat al-ta'sīs, marḥalat al-ta'ṣīl, marḥalat al-tafrī', and marḥalat al-tajdi>d. 2) among the points that can be explained related to the historical roots of tafsir maqas{idi> that is: a) in the ta'sīs period, there embryo maqāṣid al-shari>’ah. For example, there is a triple divorce in one majlis which is punishable by a single divorce at the time of the Prophet, during the time of Umar ra. punishable by three divorces, with consideration of 'urf, for the benefit; b) in the tafrī' period, born three maqāṣid al-shari>’ah theories. first, al-Tūfī argues that the Shari'ah is none other than mas}lah}ah itself, so if nas} is contrary to mas}lah}ah then take precedence of mas}lah}ah ('alā sabīl al-takhṣīṣ); secondly, al-Gazalī states that "mas}lah}ah" is nothing but the Shari'a itself, so the theory of mas}lah}ah is taken inductively from nas {{; Third, al-Shāṭibī argues that mas}lah}ah and shari'a are one unity, so if nas} that opposed to mas}lah}ah is qot}'i> al-dalālah, then nas {is precedence, and if nas} that opposed to mas}lah}ah is dhanni> al-dalālah, then mas}lah}ah is precedence; c) in the tajdi>d period, classical maqāṣid concepts that are protection and preservation, altered by some contemporary Muslims such as Jasser Auda into a new concept of development and rights. The idea of contemporaryization of this terminology was then rejected by many fuqaha. 3) an example of the application of tafsir maqāṣidi> is the interpretation of the Qur'an surah al-Nu>r verse 2 in the context of the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia. In this case there is a ta'āruḍ between nas which enjoins the caning and "mas}lah}ah". The application of the Islamic Criminal law in Indonesia to date has not received sufficient political support, so it will lead to greater mafsadah. Therefore, mas}lah}ah takes precedence and is made as takhṣīṣ above nas}.

Keywords


Keywords: sejarah, tafsir, tafsir maqashidi.

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Qur’an

Abū ʻAwānah. Musnadu Abī ʻAwānah. Baerut: Dār al-Maʻrifah, Tt.

Abū Dāwud. Sunan Abī Dāwud. Baerut: Dār al-Kitāb al-ʻArabī, Ṭt.

Ahmad. Sunanu Aḥmad. Tt. Muassasat al-Risālah, 1421/20001.

Al-Aṭrash, Riḍwān Jamal dan Nishwān ʻAbduh Khālid Qā’id. “al-Judhūr al-Tārikhīyah li al-Tafsīr al-Maqāṣidī li al-Qurān al-Karīm” dalam Majallat al-Islām fī Āsia, vol. 1. al-Jāmiʻah al-Islāmīyah al-ʻĀlamīyah bi Malizia, 2011.

Auda, Jasser. Membumikan Hukum Islam melalui Maqasid Syariah terj. Rosidin dan ʻAli ʻAbd el-Munʻim (Bandung: Mizan, 2015.

Al-Bagawī, al-Ḥusayn bin Masʻūd. Shaḥ al-Sunnah. Baerut: al-Maktab al-Islāmī, 1983.

Al-Bayhaqī, Abū Bakr Aḥmad bin Ḥusayn. Sunan al-Bayhaqī al-Kubrā. Makkah: Maktabatu Dār al-Bāz, 1994.

---------. al-Sunan al-Ṣugrā. Pakistan: Jāmiʻ al-Dirāsāt al-Islāmīyah, 1410H./ 1989M.

Al-Bukhārī. Ṣaḥīḥ al-Bukhārī. Semarang: Ṭaha Putra, Tt.

Al-Dārimī, Abū Muḥammad ʻAbdullāh bin ʻAbdirraḥmān. Sunan al-Dārimī. Baerut: Dar al-Kutub al-ʻArabī, Tt.

Al-Dhahabī, Muḥammad Ḥusain. al-Tafsīr wa al-Mufassirūn.

Al-Haytamī, Ibn Ḥajar. Tuḥfat al-Muḥtāj bi Sharḥ al-Minhāj (Baerut: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīah, 2011), I: 57.

Ibnu Mājah. Sunan Ibni Mājah. Baerut: Dār al-Fikr, Tt.

Mālik. Muwaṭṭaʻu Mālik. Daamaskus: Dār al-Qalam, Tt.

Al-Marwazī, Abū ʻAbdillāh Muḥammad bin Naṣr. al-Sunnah. Baerut: Muassat al-Kutub al-Thaqāfīyah, 1408.

Al-Mawṣilī, ʻAbdullāh bin Maḥmūd bin Mawdūd. al-Ikhtiyāru li Taʻlīl al-Mukhtār. Baerut: Dār al-Kutub al-Alamīyah, 2005.

Mayangsari, Galuh Nashrullah Kartika dan H. Hasni Noor. “Konsep Maqashid al-Syariah dalam Menentukan Hukum Islam Prespektif al-Syatibiyah dan Jasser Auda” dalam al-Iqtishad iyah Jurnal Ekonomi Syariah dan Hukum Ekonomi Syariah. ISSN Elektronik 2442-2282 Desember 2014, Vol 1.

Misbah, M. at all. Tafsir Maqashidi Kajian Tematik Maqashid al-Syari’ah. Kediri: Lirboyo Press, 2013.

Muslim. Ṣaḥīḥ Muslim. Baerut: Dāru Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, tt.

Al-Nasā’ī. Sunan al-Nasā’ī. Baerut: Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 1991.

Al-Ṣābūnī, Muḥammad ʻAlī. Rawā’iʻ al-Bayān Tafsīru Āyāt al-Aḥkām min al-Qur’ān. Jakarta: Dār al-Kutub al-Islāmīyah, 2001.

Zainal Hamam & A. Halil Thahir Menakar Sejarah Tafsir Maqa>s}idi> | 19

QOF: Jurnal Studi Al-Qur’an dan Tafsir Vol. 2, No. 1 2018

Al-Ṣanʻānī, Muḥammad bin Ismāʻīl. Subul al-Salām . Maktabatu Muṣṭafā al-Bābī al-Ḥalabī, 1379 H./1969 M.

Al-Rāzī, Fakhruddin Muḥammad bin ʻUmar. Mafātīḥ al-Gayb. Baerut: Dāru Iḥyā’ al-Tūrāth, Tt..

Sugandhi, R. Kitab Undang-undang Hukum Pidana dengan Penjelasannya. Surabaya: Usaha Nasional, Tt.

Al-Ṭaḥāwī, Abū Jaʻfar Ahmad bin Muḥammad. Sharḥ Maʻānī al-Athār. Tt: ʻĀlam al-Kutub, 1994.

Al-Tūnisī, Muḥammad bin ʻĀshūr bin Muḥammad, al-Taḥrīr wa al-Tanwīr. Baerut: Muassasat al-Tārīkh al-ʻArabī, 2000.

Al-Turmudhī, Sunan al-Turmudhī (Baerut: Dāru Iḥyā’ al-Turāth al-ʻArabī, Tt.

Al-Zarqānī, Muḥammad bin ʻAbd al-Bāqī bin Yūsuf. Shaḥ al-Zarqānī ʻalā Muwaṭṭa’ al-Imām Mālik (Dār al-Kutub al-ʻIlmīyah, 1411.


Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.


__________________
Sekretariat Jurnal QOF

Rumah Jurnal STAIN Kediri: Jalan Sunan Ampel No.7, Ngronggo, Kecamatan Kota Kediri, Kediri, Jawa Timur, 64129, Indonesia
Telp. (+62354) 689282, Fax. (+62354) 686564
HP. +62856-4577-7706, +62856-4930-3346
jurnalqof@stainkediri.ac.id

Creative Commons License
QOF: Jurnal Studi Al-Qur'an dan Tafsir 
disebarluaskan di bawah lisensi Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License.